Greer: I don't think we're going to be able to go out the way we came in. The lifts should be frozen, we could try climbing down the shafts.
*Greer forced one of the lift doors open revealing a shaft. The lift was frozen about 6 floors below*
Greer: If we can get down there, security should be laxer.
Vader's wife was very pregnant when she died 19 years ago. All of a sudden a 19 year old who is very strong in the force and has a distinct resembalance to him in his younger days rolls in from Vader's home planet with his old Master Obi-Wan (Who was the ONLY other person preset at the time his wife died. And to boot, the kid's last name is Skywalker.
So in answer to your question, he knew Luke was his son because his name is Darth Vader, and not Darth Retard.
-Forum post on why Vader knew Luke was his son.