Matt: I dunno, say about how long it takes for someone to freeze to death on hoth with no protection to the same on Tatoinee or in lava with no protection
Matt: They would make good stress relievers, just kill 'em whenever you're feeling angry and watch them come back to life....
Vader's wife was very pregnant when she died 19 years ago. All of a sudden a 19 year old who is very strong in the force and has a distinct resembalance to him in his younger days rolls in from Vader's home planet with his old Master Obi-Wan (Who was the ONLY other person preset at the time his wife died. And to boot, the kid's last name is Skywalker.
So in answer to your question, he knew Luke was his son because his name is Darth Vader, and not Darth Retard.
-Forum post on why Vader knew Luke was his son.