*Matt glanced at Hal and Allessa. Had they finally gotten married? He and his brothers used to laugh every time they heard something about the anniversary of their engagement from the gossip holos and other places. He smiled and turned away. He'd have to get them something next time they went to a planet with at least vendors*
Vader's wife was very pregnant when she died 19 years ago. All of a sudden a 19 year old who is very strong in the force and has a distinct resembalance to him in his younger days rolls in from Vader's home planet with his old Master Obi-Wan (Who was the ONLY other person preset at the time his wife died. And to boot, the kid's last name is Skywalker.
So in answer to your question, he knew Luke was his son because his name is Darth Vader, and not Darth Retard.
-Forum post on why Vader knew Luke was his son.