((Monopoly? Never played that, but okay! XD))
Q: How many people are there in this country (or these countries)? How does this compare with world population? What is considered a small town/large town/city in terms of number of people?
The countries located on the central continental spiral of the Aether are fairly heavily populated, comparable to the United States and Europe in average population density, although certain countries have many more or less people than others. Radiating outwards across the Aether central disk are more countries of wildly varying populations, from extremely sparse to extremely dense.
Of course, since the Aether is enormous, far bigger than Earth (exact size currently unknown), the population can be assumed to be immensely higher than Earth's, although it has never been completely measured.
((Will most likely post an answer to the second question later today and post a new question. Again, sorry - now that I again have regular Internet access for more than ~30 minutes a day, this thread at least shouldn't be lagging as much anymore