There were a few places where the Jedi had strongholds other than Dantooine, and of course Coruscant.
There was a Jedi Academy on Taris
, from the comic books, that was destroyed before the start of K1.
There was likely a stronghold on Katarr, amongst the Miraluka, and the site of the Conclave on Katarr.
And there was a Jedi Temple on Telos before it's destruction, where failed Jedi would be sent to work in the Agricultural division of the Jedi Service Corps.